Kiesler’s 1982 Interpersonal Circle
Common Defense Mechanisms
Certain personality disorders do seem weighted toward a particular gender. More females are diagnosed as borderline, dependent, and histrionic, while the paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, narcissistic, and obsessive-compulsive are more frequently diagnosed in men.
One problem that creates bias is that certain diagnostic criteria seem to refer to both normalcy and pathology. Most people would argue that the histrionic criterion “consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to self,” for example, is exceptionally ambiguous in a society where a pleasing physical appearance is an expected part of the female gender role.
Even where diagnostic criteria are not ambiguous, it may nevertheless prove difficult to apply them equally across the sexes. The criteria for the dependent personality, for example, seems to emphasize as pathological female types of dependency, but fails to include masculine types of dependency. For example, Walker (1994, p. 36) argues that “men who rely on others to maintain their homes and take care of their children are … expressing personality-disordered dependency.” Were this criterion added, many more men would certainly be diagnosed dependent.
Brief Description of the Fourteen Personality Disorders of DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV
Schizoid: Apathetic, indifferent, remote, solitary. Neither desires nor need human attachments. Minimal awareness of feelings of self or others. Few drives or ambitions, if any.
Avoidant: Hesitant, self-conscious, embarrassed, anxious. Tense in social situations due to fear of rejection. Plagued by constant performance anxiety. Sees self as inept, inferior, or unappealing. Feels alone and empty.
Depressive: Somber, discouraged, pessimistic, brooding, fatalistic. Presents self as vulnerable and abandoned. Feels valueless, guilty, and impotent. Judges self as worthy only of criticism and contempt.
Dependent: Helpless, incompetent, submissive, immature. Withdraws from adult responsibilities. Sees self as weak or fragile. Seeks constant reassurance from stronger figures.
Histrionic: Dramatic, seductive, shallow, stimulus-seeking, vain. Overreacts to minor events. Exhibitionistic as a means of securing attention and favors. Sees self as attractive and charming.
Narcissistic: Egotistical, arrogant, grandiose, insouciant. Preoccupied with fantasies of success, beauty, or achievement. Sees self as admirable and superior, and therefore entitled to special treatment.
Antisocial: Impulsive, irresponsible, deviant, unruly. Acts without due consideration. Meets social obligations only when self-serving. Disrespects societal customs, rules, and standards. Sees self as free and independent.
Sadistic: Explosively hostile, abrasive, cruel, dogmatic. Liable to sudden outbursts of rage. Feels selfsatisfied through dominating, intimidating and humiling others. Is opinionated and closeminded.
Compulsive Restrained, conscientious, respectful, rigid. Maintains a rule-bound lifestyle. Adheres closely to social conventions. Sees the world in terms of regulations and hierarchies. Sees self as devoted,
reliable, efficient, and productive.
Negativistic: Resentful, contrary, skeptical, discontented. Resist fulfilling others’ expectations. Deliberately inefficient. Vents anger indirectly by undermining others’ goals. Alternately moody and irritable, then sullen and withdrawn.
Masochistic: Deferential, pleasure-phobic, servile, blameful, self-effacing. Encourages others to take advantage. Deliberately defeats own achievements. Seeks condemning or mistreatful partners.
Paranoid: Guarded, defensive, distrustful and suspiciousness. Hypervigilant to the motives of others to undermine or do harm. Always seeking confirmatory evidence of hidden schemes. Feels righteous, but persecuted.
Schizotypal: Eccentric, self-estranged, bizarre, absent. Exhibits peculiar mannerisms and behaviors. Thinks can read thoughts of others. Preoccupied with odd daydreams and beliefs. Blurs line between reality and fantasy.
Borderline: Unpredictable, manipulative, unstable. Frantically fears abandonment and isolation. Experiences rapidly fluctuating moods. Shifts rapidly between loving and hating. Sees self and others alternatively as all-good and all-bad.
The British Academy of Sound Therapy has apparently shortlisted the 10 most relaxing tunes, with “Weightless” by Marconi Union topping the list:
"While listening, your heart rate gradually comes to match that beat. It is important that the song is eight minutes long because it takes about five minutes for this process, known as entrainment, to occur. The fall in heart rate also leads to a fall in blood pressure.
The harmonic intervals - or gaps between notes - have been chosen to create a feeling of euphoria and comfort. And there is no repeating melody, which allows your brain to completely switch off because you are no longer trying to predict what is coming next.
Instead, there are random chimes, which helps to induce a deeper sense of relaxation. The final element is the low, whooshing sounds and hums that are like buddhist chants. High tones stimulate but these low tones put you in a trance-like state.”
—Lyz Cooper, Founder of BAST
Here is the full list:
1. Marconi Union - Weightless
2. Airstream - Electra
3. DJ Shah - Mellomaniac (Chill Out Mix)
4. Enya - Watermark
5. Coldplay - Strawberry Swing
6. Barcelona - Please Don’t Go
7. All Saints - Pure Shores
8. Adele - Someone Like You
9. Mozart - Canzonetta Sull’aria
10. Cafe Del Mar - We Can Fly
*Note: not sure about the validity of this so-called research, consider it more as just for fun
In America, “the squeaky wheel gets the grease.” In Japan, “the nail that stands out gets pounded down.” American parents who are trying to induce their children to eat their suppers are fond of saying “think of the starving kids in Ethiopia, and appreciate how lucky you are to be different from them.” Japanese parents are likely to say “Think about the farmer who worked so hard to produce this rice for you; if you don’t eat it, he will feel bad, for his efforts will have been in vain” (H. Yamada, February 16,1989). A small Texas corporation seeking to elevate productivity told its employees to look in the mirror and say “I am beautiful” 100 times before coming to work each day. Employees of a Japanese supermarket that was recently opened in New Jersey were instructed to begin the day by holding hands and telling each other that “he” or “she is beautiful” (“A Japanese Supermarket,” 1989).
The American examples stress attending to the self, the appreciation of one’s difference from others, and the importance of asserting the self. The Japanese examples emphasize attending to and fitting in with others and the importance of harmonious interdependence with them.
Research suggests that children who grow up in “risky families” are more at risk for a wide range of mental and physical health problems.
"Risky families" are those that are described as cold, unsupportive and neglectful. Such families are characterized by overt conflict with frequent episodes of anger and aggression. Such episodes may manifest in quarreling and irritable parents or exposure to violence and abuse in the home. Families characterized by high levels of conflict, aggression, and hostility are often lacking in acceptance, warmth, and support. Lack of emotional nurturance alone leads to poor mental health outcomes, and manifests in many ways, such as:
- emotional neglect
- rejecting or unresponsive parenting
- lack of parental involvement in or availability for child activities
- lack of cohesiveness, warmth and support in the family
- experiences of alienation, detachment and lack of acceptance by the children
Such characteristics are often exacerbated by the family’s social environment, including factors such as chronic stress, neighborhood violence, and poverty.
Risky family environments result in internalizing symptoms such as depression, suicidal behavior, and anxiety disorders as well as externalizing symptoms such as aggressive, hostile, oppositional, and delinquent behavior. Risky families create deficits in children’s control of and expression of emotions and in social competence, and also lead to disturbances in physiologic and neuroendocrine system regulation that can have cumulative, long-term, adverse effects. Children who grow up in risky families are also especially likely to exhibit health-threatening behaviors, including smoking, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse; the risk for promiscuous sexual activity in these children is also high. Taken together, these behavioral and biological consequences of risky family environments represent an integrated risk profile that is associated with mental health disorders across the lifespan, including depression, aggressive hostility, major chronic illnesses such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and early death.
(Source: Repetti, Taylor, and Seeman, 2002)
Columbia University professor Michael Stone knows evil. He’s a forensic psychologist — the type of expert that provides testimony on the mental state of accused murderers when a declaration of insanity can mean the difference between life and death row.
Stone researched hundreds of killers and their methods and motives to develop his hierarchy of “evil”. The scale ranges from Category 1, those who kill in self-defense, to the Category 22, serial torturer-murderers.
- Those who have killed in self-defense, and who do not show traces of psychopathy.
- Jealous lovers who committed murder; although egocentric or immature, they are not psychopaths.
- Willing companions of killers: aberrant personality, impulse-ridden, with some antisocial traits.
- Those who have killed in self-defense, but had been extremely provocative toward the victim for that to happen.
- Traumatized, desperate persons who killed abusive relatives or other people, but who show remorse for their crime and are not psychopaths.
- Impetuous, hotheaded murderers, yet without marked psychopathic traits.
- Highly narcissistic, but not distinctly psychopathic persons—some with a psychotic core—who kill persons next to them, with jealousy as an underlying motive.
- Non-psychopathic persons with smoldering rage, and who kill when the rage is ignited.
- Jealous lovers with marked psychopathic features.
- Killers of people “in the way”, such as witnesses. Extremely egocentric, but not distinctly psychopathic.
- Psychopathic killers of people “in the way”, such as close friends or even family members.
- Power-hungry psychopaths who kill when they are “cornered”.
- Psychopathic murderers with inadequate, rageful personalities, rage being the reason of their killings.
- Ruthlessly self-centered psychopathic schemers who kill to benefit themselves.
- Psychopathic cold-blooded spree killers or multiple murderers.
- Psychopaths committing multiple vicious acts, with repeated acts of extreme violence.
- Sexually perverse serial murderers: Rape is the primary motive and the victim is killed to hide evidence.
- Psychopathic torture-murderers, where murder is the primary motive, and the victim is killed after a torture that was not prolonged.
- Psychopaths driven to terrorism, subjugation, intimidation, and rape, short of murder or murder is not the primary motive.
- Psychopathic torture-murderers, where torture is the primary motive, but in persons with distinct psychoses (such as schizophrenia).
- Psychopaths who do not kill their victims, but do subject them to extreme torture.
- Psychopathic torture-murderers, where torture is the primary motive. In most cases, the crime has a sexual motivating factor.
Prevailing developmental and social psychological theories related to the development of children’s motivational orientation emphasize the role of environmental influences. Environments which provide optimal challenge, competence-promoting feedback, and support for autonomous behavior will facilitate the development of intrinsic motivation. On the other hand, environments with more controlling aspects, such as the use of rewards, deadlines, or surveillance will undermine intrinsic motivation and foster an extrinsic motivational orientation.